Thursday, November 30, 2017

Need Help Citing Social Media?

In some cases, a social media post can be considered a primary source, for example if the president of the United States tweets his plans to push for a new policy. Taking this tweet in context -- as you would a remark given in a speech -- by looking at subsequent remarks and then the resulting policy decisions that may have been influenced, can help build or support a case for whatever thesis you are defending.

Here is a handy chart to give you a quick reference. Refer to the links above for more detail, and don't forget the hanging indent! Need more help? Ask a librarian.


Social Media by Style





Twitter Moments include all the necessary information—who (Twitter username), when (date), what (title), and where (URL)


Reuters Top News [Reuters]. (2016, November 1). Inside David Bowie's art collection [Twitter moment]. Retrieved from

@tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign." Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m.,

Last name, First name. Twitter Post. Month Day, Year, Time. Tweet URL.


Timberlake, Justin. Twitter Post. June 16, 2014, 8:05 PM.


handle. (Year, month day posted). First several words of Instagram post (if any)... [Instagram post]. Retrieved from URL

libechillbro. (2013, April 18). Root beer floats are in honor of  National Library Week [Instagram post]. Retrieved from

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. (handle). "First several words of Instagram post (if any)..." Instagram, Day month year posted, URL.

libechillbro. "Root beer floats are in honor of National Library Week…" Instagram, 18 Apr 2013,


Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. Instagram post. Month day, year posted.  URL.

Penguin, Oscar. Instagram post. April 18, 2013.



A reference to a YouTube channel follows the usual who (YouTube username), when (date), what (title), and where (URL) format:


PsycINFO. (n.d.). Home [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,

Last Name, First Name. “Video Title”. Filmed [Month Year]. YouTube video, duration. Posted [Month Year]. Video URL

GEICO Insurance. “GEICO Hump Day Camel Commercial – Happier than a Camel on Wednesday”. Filmed [May 2013]. YouTube video, 00:30. Posted [May 2013].


Artist, A. A. (Credit), & Artist, B. B. (Credit). (Year of copyright, Date of recording). Title of episode. Title of Program: Subtitle [format]. Place of recording: Publisher. (Year of recording if different from year of copyright).  Retrieved from internet address


Robertson, R. (Speaker). (2010). Leadership at the bottom of the earth…where no one hears you scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch lecture [Podcast]. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University. Retrieved from

Author, Given Names. Title: Subtitle.  Publisher, Year, Internet address


Miller, Toby. Australian Citizenship, 1912: A Model for the World?, 2013 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Murdoch University, 2013, Office/University-history/Lectures-and-speeches/Sir-Walter-Murdoch-Memorial-Lecture-Series/.

Last Name, First Name. “Episode Title”. Podcast Title. Podcast audio, Month Date, Year of publication. URL.


Starecheski, Laura. “Goat on a Cow”. Detective Stories. Podcast audio, Sept. 10, 2007.


Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post].  Retrieved from


Mathis, T. (2015, August 12). What is human systems integration? [Blog post].  Retrieved from

Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.


Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography.


Lennon, Robert J. “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.),


Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (3:40 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39  a.m.),